Global Geopark

UNESCO Global Geopark is a geological area management with a comprehensive and integrated concept that aims for education, conservation, and sustainable development. The UNESCO Global Geopark uses all aspects of the natural and cultural heritage of the region, to raise awareness and understanding of key issues facing the community, such as sustainable use of natural resources, mitigate climate change impacts and reduce the risk of natural disasters.

By raising awareness of the importance of nature preserving today, the UNESCO Global Geopark gives local people a sense of pride in their regionand strengthens its ability to recognize the nature of their homes. The creation of innovative new jobs and the best quality training courses are conductedwith the aim of creating new sources of livelihood for the people, through the development of natural tourism destinations, while maintainingnatural conservation in the region.

Burren and Cliff of Moher Geopark, Ireland
Burren and Cliff of Moher Geopark, Ireland
Dong Van Karts Plateau Geopark, Hagiang, Vietnam
Dong Van Karts Plateau Geopark, Hagiang, Vietnam
Songsan Ilchulbong in Jeju Geopark, South Korea
Songsan Ilchulbong in Jeju Geopark, South Korea
Kalta Geopark, Iceland
Kalta Geopark, Iceland
Indonesia Geoparks

Indonesia Geoparks

Indonesia Geoparks
Geopark Rinjani
Geopark Rinjani located in West Nusa Tenggara. It occupies an area of approximately 2800 km2. The Geopark includes five areas of North Lombok, East Lombok, Central Lombok, West Lombok and Mataram city. There are 22 geological sites, 8 biodiversity and 17 cultural diversities in the area. It has all the potential of the leading tourist destination. Community empowerment is key to governance within the Rinjani Geopark. It shows a positive impact on the welfare of its people, which is in line with the development of knowledge, skills and provision in the community.
Indonesia Geoparks
Geopark Ciletuh – Pelabuhan Ratu
The Geopark Ciletuh-Pelabuhan Ratu located in the city of Sukabumi, West Java. It's known for the beautiful geographical conditions. This region has a variety of geological sites from Megalithic era; a culture in which people use large stones to create a product. Geopark Ciletuh features a set of the oldest rocks, biodiversity and cultural diversity. Representing its culture, traditional ceremonies like Seren Taun, held upon harvest time as a form of gratitude to nature.
Indonesia Geoparks
Geopark Merangin
Merangin Geopark located in Merangin area, Jambi province, with an area of 1,699 km2. This Geopark region stores a variety of ancient fossil plants. One of the most remarkable is a Cathasian plant originating from the ancient continent (Gondwana) aged 290 million years ago. Merangin Geopark has become reference for various reconstruction of earth plate movement.
Indonesia Geoparks
Geopark Batur
Mount Batur is an active volcano located in Kintamani, Bangli District, Bali. The mountain soars to 1,171 meters above sea level. Mount Batur is a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire and becomes one of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia. Noted since 1804, Mount Batur has erupted as much as 26 times. Two large eruptions of tens of thousands of years ago formed a giant crater. The crater now known as Lake Batur, a crescent-shaped lake, fascinates many visitors. Lake Batur has an area of 16 km2. To see it from cultural side, Hindu religion is dominating the Geopark. As seen through breath-taking temples such as Pancering Jagad Temple, Pura Dalem Belingkang, Pura Batur and Pura Bukit Mentik. This area also has a traditional village, Trunyan, which still maintains its tradition.
Indonesia Geoparks
Geopark Sewu
Mount Sewu has an area up to 1,802 km2, stretching in three areas of Gunungkidul, Wonogiri, and Pacitan. Mount Sewu known as an area formed by the dissolution of limestone (karst). The character of Geopark Sewu comes from its limestone rock hills, caves, underground rivers, waterfalls and contour basins Mount Sewu Geopark considered as a complete tourist destination. Its coastal nature tourism covers the area of Gunung Kidul and various caves in Pacitan. Not to miss, meeting the local community through its creative industry tourism.
Indonesia Geoparks
Geopark Toba Caldera
The Toba Caldera located in North Sumatra. A series of ancient Toba volcano eruptions formed the region. Toba volcano eruptions occurred 840,000 years ago, 501,000 years ago and the largest 74,000 years ago. The latter eruption is known as the 'Super Volcano' eruption. It produces 2,800 km3 of volcanic ash, rocks, and hot gas. The eruption caused a prolonged winter and global climate change. Lake Toba is a giant craters (caldera) that filled with rain water for tens of thousands of years. The landscape around Lake Toba becomes home to a variety of flora and fauna. Its natural changes then form the value of the wisdom and culture of the community.

Supervolcano Toba


Toba Caldera Evolution

Ancient Toba
Toba Caldera, its gradual creation

It is estimated that the ancient Toba volcano developed starting at least 1.2 million years ago. The discovery of ancient sediment called 'Tuf Dasitan Haranggaol' supports this theory. The sediment is from a large volcano and now traces of it are found on the north and south walls of Lake Toba. The prediction is that this volcano existed since the first eruption of Mount Toba.

According to experts, the formation of the Toba Caldera began by the eruption of Mount Toba 840,000 years ago. The eruption released 500 km3 of ash, rocks, lava and gas. The event then produced sediment known as Old Toba Tuff. Nowadays, the community calls the Old Toba Tuff area as the Porsea Caldera. The limestone boundary covers the Sibaganding - Porsea - Balige region.

Middle Toba Tuff
Haranggaol Caldera

The second-generation eruption is also known as the Haranggaol Caldera. Located in the northern part of Lake Toba, this medium sized eruption occurred around 501,000 years ago. It removed 60 km3 of ash, rocks, lava and gas, which today is recognized as the Middle Toba Tuff.

Young Toba Tuff
Sibandang Caldera, the final process towards the formation of the Toba Caldera

The third generation caldera occurred around 74,000 years ago. The world called this third eruption the eruption of the Super Volcano. It released about 2,800 km3 of volcanic material containing ash, rocks, lava and gas. Today, it is known as the Youngest Toba Tuff. Sibandang Caldera is the name of the post-eruption area of  the Super Volcano. This region occupies the western and southwestern part of Lake Toba, around the island of Sibandang, and Muara Village.

If we refer back to the evolution of the Toba Caldera where the eruption intervals range between 300,000 to 400,000 years, then Mount Toba could erupt again in 200,000 years.

Toba Caldera Evolution

Volcanic Winter :
The eruption that created a prolonged winter

Mass migration as the only survival option

The events of the eruption of the 'Super Volcano' of the Toba Caldera turned out to cause various impacts. Among them is the loss of the central partof the island of Sumatra, this happened due to a hot cloud from the 'Super Volcano' eruption. The 'Supervolcano' also caused the pumice and volcanic ashthat stretches from the western to the southwestern regions of Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, to Indochina and India (Madhya Pradesh).



At its peak, this eruption produced harmful gases and water, which vaporized into the atmosphere even touching the stratosphere layer.This event then triggered what is known as 'volcanic winter', the restriction of sunlight to the earth, causing a prolonged winter. The 'Supervolcano' led to an environmental catastrophe, leading to the death of living things due to loss of food sources to the point of extinction.

The only way to survive at that time was to migrate. Many written records state that the migration not only happened in the region of Sumatra but,due to the massive eruption, the area affected by the 'volcanic winter' was very wide and reached most of Asia. To survive, humans affected bythis volcanic winter migrated to temperature-stable places and the migration helped them to maintain adequate sunlight and food supply.


The events of the formation of Samosir Island

The emerging island on the island

The presence of the island of Samosir in the vastness of the Toba Caldera is a rare occurrence in the world. This island emerges from below the water surface.

It was the result of the pressure in the magma chamber causing the removal of the base of the caldera. The process is also known as resurgence.

Based on the topsoil data, the island of Samosir was still below the surface of the lake water 30,000 years ago. Since that time, the island of Samosir has undergone lifting as much as ± 700 m with the position tilting to the west. The elevation changes are in close relation to the magmachamber refilling process. The Tuktuk area is the earliest part to have surfaced out of Lake Toba, which happened ± 8,000 years ago.This knowledge is the result of reconstructing the elevation process of the island of Samosir.


Geologi Variety


Floral & Fauna Variety


Local Wisdom